Important Translators and Interpreting Activities of the Ancient Arab World – Mehmet Bölükbaşı

Abstract: In this study, information is given about the works they have done with the prominent translators in the Ancient Arab World and the important works they translated into Arabic from different languages. In addition, the role played by prominent translators in the development of Arabic translation activities of the works they have brought to the Arab world is mentioned. The translators of the ancient Arab World served as a bridge between different cultures. In addition, thanks to the translations they have made, the transfer of information has been passed on from generation to generation. In this way, information was given about the source translated works that have survived until today and the oral translations made by these translators in the palaces. In this context, translation is very important for intercultural communication. Translation activities, which have contributed greatly to the transfer of ideas and beliefs and to communication between different communities, have played a key role in the development of world culture. However; translation has always been a bridge between civilizations; Throughout history, written and oral translations have played a very important role in providing communication between societies. In this context; translators are at the forefront of intercultural knowledge transfer. Thanks to their translations, they have brought important works of different nations, such as medicine, literature, history, astronomy and mathematics, to the world cultural heritage. However; In addition to being an act of communication between different cultures, translation is a dynamic activity that requires translators to make choices and make decisions to solve the problems they encounter while translating. Hz. Muhammad needed translators to convey the religion of Islam and to communicate with the communities in the regions that were conquered during the conquests. In the Arab world, Hz. Translation, which started with the communique of Islam in the period of Muhammad and became a very active activity in the following periods, played a great role in the emergence of important translators on the stage of history. These translators, especially in languages ​​such as Ancient Greek, Syriac and Persian, have translated into Arabic the source works written in Arabic, thereby bringing them to the world cultural heritage. Also; In the study, the definition of translation and information about the important translators of the Ancient Arab World and their translations were given.

Keywords: ancient Arab world, important translators, translated works, interpreting.


Different views can be expressed on the definition of translation. Cry; He states that as opposed to a single definition, we can come across as many different definitions as those who want to define translation (Doğru, 2020: 185; Nida, 1964: 161). This situation shows that the knowledge, experience and preferences of people who want to define translation can diversify the definition. In general, translation is the activity of translating a word from one language to another. The person who interprets words is called “translator” (Ibn Manzûr, 1999, 4: 93). Communications between societies belonging to different nationalities can only be achieved through translators. There were nations that spoke many different languages ​​in the empires that ruled over wide geographies, and translators were used to communicate with these nations in political and social fields. It was common to employ interpreters in imperial palaces. In this context, there was a translator working in the Sassani palace, who was interested in Arab affairs and received a salary in return for his interpretation (Rothstein, 1899: 130). However; Hz. In the period of Muhammad, translators who knew Arabic were working in the Byzantine and Sasani palaces, which were adjacent to the Arab-Islamic state. Hz. Kisrâ had the translator in charge of the palace read and translated the letter that Muhammad sent to invite the Persian Emperor Kisra to Islam (Hamîdullah, 2019: 389). Hâtıb b. Abu Beltea (d. 650) Hz. When Muhammad’s letter was delivered to the Byzantine governor general of Egypt, Mukavkis (d.642), Mukavkıs understood the content of the letter thanks to his translator (as-Suyûti, 1967: 47). However, Hz. Heraclius had the letter of invitation to Islam, which he sent to the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (d.641) through the messenger of Muhammad, translated by his translator (Tâberi, 1891, II: 647). The ruler of Buwayhi Adududdevle (d.983) sent Bâkıllânî (d.1013) as an ambassador to Byzantium and was able to meet with the Bâkıllânî Byzantine emperor through the interpreter in the palace (Kadî Iyâz, 1967, III: 595). In this context; Although translation activity is a comprehensive and difficult process, translators have played a major role in providing communication between societies and states throughout history in political, daily and diplomatic fields. Translation is an activity that plays an important role in establishing communication between nations of different nations and individuals. However, medicine, astronomy and mathematics belonging to different civilizations

Translation of copyrighted works by the people has greatly contributed to the formation of science and culture of new civilizations. It
in the context BC. IV. and VI. From the Eastern culture to the Ancient Greek culture between the centuries, M.S. and VIII. century Greek culture to Arab-Islamic culture, XI. In the 16th century, translations made from Arab-Islamic culture to Western culture were the periods of significant intercultural interactions (Aydın, 2016: 18).

The purpose and importance of the research

The aim of the study: It is to provide information about the contributions and translation activities of important Arab translators to the Arab world of science and culture through translations, which emerged as a result of encountering and interacting with different cultures thanks to the Arab-Islamic conquests and which started to form certain rules. Commonly known translators were discussed in the study.

The importance of the research is; The translations made by the translators of the Ancient Arab World are not merely to inform the reader or to provide information on a particular subject; At the same time, the contribution of the translations made in the formation of the state tradition, especially in the Arab world, is mentioned. In addition, it was pointed out that as a result of obtaining new information in the fields of medicine and astronomy, the Arabian scientific world made progress by obtaining new information from western science. However, it was emphasized that we still benefit from the works translated from different languages ​​by the translators of the Ancient Arab World and that these works, which are translated into Arabic from different languages, where these works belong to the world cultural heritage, not to the Arab world, are now translated into many Western languages.


While conducting qualitative research, data are collected in three ways: observation, interviewing and obtaining documents (Kıral, 2020: 170). In the historical process, Arabic sources and modern works, which are named as classical and modern, were analyzed with the document analysis technique. Information about the important translators of the Ancient Arab World and the works they translated into Arabic and their translation activities were compiled. Within the scope of this information, the prominent translators of the Ancient Arab World, the translation of works written by nations speaking different languages ​​into Arabic and the development of translation activities are discussed in the context of cause and effect.

Translation Activities

The translator needs to know the source and target language, as well as the history, culture and social structure of the two languages, but the desired translation can be achieved in this way (Kayayerli, 1994: 208). However, translation activities are an ongoing activity since ancient times, which tries to solve communication problems that may occur between people of different nations. In this context, the Tower of Babel is mentioned in the Torah. After the Flood of Noah, people returning to their perverted behavior and movements start to build a tower to reach the sky. But God causes a confusion of language between them in order to punish those who have gone astray. Due to the communication problem on this situation, they cannot complete the tower and the project is terminated (Redouane, 2010: 7). In this context, translators were needed in order to solve the communication problems arising between people speaking different languages, and this situation caused people to learn different languages.

In the Arab-Islamic world; Hz. Muhammad (d.632) needed translators in order to preach the religion of Islam and to communicate with societies living in different geographies that were taken under control by the conquests. However; Hz. The letters of invitation that Muhammad sent to foreign rulers to accept the religion of Islam were sent to Zayd b. Thabit (d.665) and the coming foreign delegations and Hz. He provided communication between Muhammad as a translator. Zayd b. Thabit knew more than one language and these languages ​​were; It was Greek, Abyssinian, Coptic and Persian (Ibn Abdurabbih, 1983, IV: 244). Zayd b. Thabit learned these languages ​​from those living in Madinah (Mesudî, 1938, IV: 161). However, Hz. Since Muhammad did not want other people to read the letters written in Hebrew and Syriac, Zayd b. He wanted Thabit to learn Hebrew and Syriac. Upon this situation, he also learned these two languages ​​(ibn Sa‘d, 1968, II: 358).

Hz. Umar (0.644) gave duties to translators as well as people who performed professions such as judges, clerks and doctors in the army (Tâberi, 1891, II: 386). However, interpreters were used while the cases were being discussed in the courts. In some cases, a single interpreter would not be sufficient, so two interpreters were required to work. It was due to being able to make a healthy decision (Bukhârî, Ahkâm, 40: 1998)

Translation was an important profession also in the Umayyad and Abbasid periods. The Umayyad and Abbasid rulers also assigned translators who knew Nabatean, Greek and Coptic in their palaces, and these people were named “” Interpreters “. This ba

Byzantine emperor VII. Abu Umayr Adi b. Abdulbâkl et-Tercümân (d.1429) worked as a translator (Reşîd b. Zubeyr, 1959: 131). The Byzantine ambassador and delegation was welcomed by the Vizier Ibnu’l-Furât al-Âkülî (d.924) at the Abbasid Palace and the translator Abu Umayr Adi b. In Abdülbâkl’s translation, communication between the two parties was provided through translation (ibn Kesîr, 1988, XI: 136).

2. Important Translators of the Ancient Arab World

It is a known fact that every society has its own different language. This situation appears as an obstacle in establishing communication between societies. This obstacle can be opened by interpreters. In this context, translators provide interaction and knowledge between societies and cultures by translating works belonging to different cultures. However, in order for the specified transfer to take place at the desired level, the translators must know the source language and the target language well. However, it is an important issue that the translators must have a command of the cultural structure of the society of the work they will translate (Göktürk, 1994: 60).

Since the translators of the ancient Arab World have versatile knowledge, they have achieved the desired level of translation from the source language to the target language. Because they corrected the missing or misspelled information in the works they translated, and transferred it to Arabic. In this study, information about the prominent translators in the Ancient Arab World, the works they translated and their contributions to Arabic science and culture were given. It was also concluded that, despite the difficulties of translation between different languages ​​and cultures, the translators of the Ancient Arab World were able to translate many works that were authored in different languages ​​into Arabic despite these difficulties.

Huneyn b. İshâk al-İbâdî: (d.873) Being a Christian, Hunayn b. He received medical education after being influenced by his father who was an ishâk pharmacist. He was born in Hire, located south of the city of Kufa. Having received a Christian education in his birthplace, Huneyn b. Ishâk went to Baghdad at the age of 12 and worked as a doctor at the Cundişapur Academy, Yuhannâ b. He received both medical education and Greek and Arabic from Masaveyh (d.857) (ibn Hallikân, 1967, I: 257).
Huneyn b. Ishâk went to the Persian land, where al-Khalil b. He met Ahmed al-Farâhîdî (d.791) and brought the work named ‘Kitâbu’1-‘ Ayn ‘, an important dictionary that al-Farâhîdî wrote according to the alphabetical index, to Baghdad. Later, he controlled the translation of the work “Kitâbu’1-” Ayn “, which was created under the supervision of the Caliph al-Mutevekil (d.861) and made by the translation committee (ibn Culcul, 1985: 8). Huneyn b. Ishâk, the work of the Caliph al-Me’mûn, written by the ancient Greek physician Galen (d.200) upon the request of the physician of the Caliph al-Me’mûn (d.769), that gives information about the natural methods that should be used to reduce fever during fever. He translated it into Arabic with the name of fî’l-Kuvvâ’t-Tabî’iyye fî Eşnâfi ‘l-Hummey (d’ (ibn Hallikân, 1967, I: 259).

Huneyn, who is a physician, has mostly translations and copyrighted works on medicine and eye diseases. Eye diseases were quite common in Mesopotamia region and Egypt due to hot and dry climate conditions. That is why Huneyn focused more on his research on eye diseases and treatment. In this context, he translated his work written by Galen on eye diseases with the name “Kitâbu’l-Calinûs fî’ l-Emrâdi “l- Ayn” (Durant, 1988, XIII: 191). However, Huneyn b. İshâk al-Ibâdî, one of the philosophers of Ephesus, whose work on dream interpretation was written by Artemidoros, in Arabic with the name ‘Kitâbu Ta’biri’ r-Ru ‘; From Greek to Arabic, he translated Hippocrates’ work, which contains information about medical science, into Arabic with the name ‘Kitâbu Katîtiyûn’ (Ibnu’n-Nedîm, 1971: 315) .Huneyn b. Thanks to these translations, the Arab world has gained important information about the Western world ‘s point of view on medical science and the methods they use.

İshâk b. Huneyn: Huneyn b. İshâk b, who is the son of İshâk al-İbâdî. Huneyn (d.910) was a talented physician like his father. Ishak b. Although Huneyn was a physician, he translated the copyrighted works on Philosophy and Logic into Arabic (İbnu’l- Kıftî, 1908, I: 57). In this context, İshâk b. Huneyn; His work titled ‘Topîkâ’, which contains information about negotiation and debate, written by Aristotle, ‘Rhetoric’, which describes the art of rhetoric, ‘Kitâbu’l-Kevn’ that gives information about formation and decay, and ‘l-Fesâd’ and ‘Kitâbu’ containing information about the spirit. ‘n-Nefs’ also means ‘Analyt’, which means First Analytics, which includes concepts such as measurement and comparison.

He translated the works named ica-Priora ‘into Arabic (Ibnu’n-Nedîm, 1971: 341). İshâk b. Thanks to the translations made by Huneyn, curiosity towards Aristotle logic and philosophy has awakened in the Arab-Islamic world.

Fixed b. Kurre: (d.901) Thabit b. The Qurra contributed greatly to the emergence of the science of Mathematics in the Arab-Islamic world. Knowing Syriac and Greek, Thabit b. Kurre translated into Arabic many works written in the field of mathematics that were written by Greek mathematicians. In this context; Fixed b. Kurre’s greatest contribution to the Arab-Islamic world is his translations in the field of Mathematics. He translated all the works on the science of Mathematics, which were written by Archimedes (d. 212 BC), into Arabic. In this way, we still benefit from the translations of Archimedes’ works (Hitti, 1995, I: 480). However; He translated the book ‘Introduction to Arithmetic’ written by the Greek Mathematician Nikomachos with the name ‘Kitâbu’l-Medhel ilâ’l- Scientific’ l- Adedi ‘l-lezî Vada’ ahu Nîkumâhus’ (Smith, 1953, II: 685). The work ‘Makâle ^ fî’ istâci ‘lA’ dadi ‘l- Mutehabbebir’, which gives information about the exact and complete numbers related to Euclidean arithmetic, and ‘Kavl fî Tashîh Mesâ’ ili ‘l-Cebir bi’ l- Berâhini He translated the works named ‘l-Hendesiyye’ into Arabic (Râşid, 1989: 279). Having a good command of Arabic, Thabit b. Kurre found Arabic equivalents to numerical terms used in copyrighted works in the fields of Syrian, Greek, Mathematics and Geometry, so Arab-Islamic Mathematicians used most of these terms while translating. Fixed b. Kurre was not only translating, but also correcting the missing information found in the works he translated. This feature has greatly contributed to his being among the most important translators.

Ibnu’l-Mukaffa ‘: The name of Ibnu’l-Mukaffa‘ (d.759), whose real name was Ruzbih, was given to him later because of his father. His father was a Dadaveyh magus. He was a tax officer working under the administration of Haccâc (d.714), one of the Umayyad governors. During this duty, he was tortured on the grounds that he was abusing his duty, and as a result of his hands being barren, he started to be known as “al-Muqaffa”, which means “his hands were shriveled and barren”. Ibn al-Muqaffa was born in the town of Firuzabad in Iran, after completing his first education in Firuzabad, he went to Basra due to his father’s duty (Ritter, 2011: 97).

Ibnu’l-Mukaffa realizes that learning Arabic is important in Basra and begins to take lessons from scholars such as Ebu’l-Câmûs al-Arabi and Ebu’l-Gûl al-Arabi to learn Arabic. After a while he learns Fasih Arabic. However, in order to learn Arabic grammar, Halil b. He took lessons from Ahmed al-Farâhîdî (d.791). He continued his father’s profession. During his duty, he translated from Persian to Arabic (Ibn Hallikân, 1967, I: 152).

The works translated from Persian into Arabic by Ibnu’l-Mukaffa ‘:

Kelile and Dimne: Sâsâni ruler II. It is the Arabic translation of the Pançatantra, which was brought from India and translated into Pahlavi by Berzûye, who worked as a physician during the period of Hüsrev Anushirvan. This book was written by the Indian ruler, his vizier Beydaba. Çakal is a fable-style work in which lectures and advice are given based on the conversations between the two brothers. “Kelile and Dimne”, which has been translated into many languages, has the distinction of being the work that inspired the tales of Aesop and La Fontaine. In addition, the work is still being read with interest today. However, the miniatures in the work contributed greatly to the development of Arab-Islamic miniature art (Sa‘deddin, 1973: 49).

Siyeru’l-Mulûku’l-‘Acem: Sâsâni ruler III. It is the translation of the Pahlavi history into Arabic, also known as Hudayname, by using the yearbooks belonging to the Sâsâni state during the reign of Yazdicerd (Mes‘ûdî, 1938, IV: 107).
Kitâbu’l-Mazdek: It is the transfer of the work describing the life of Priest Mazdek who abandoned the Zoroastrian belief who lived in the Sassanid period (Abbûd, 1960: 207).

However, Ibnu’l-Mukaffa translated Pehlevic works such as “Isâgoci” and “Kitâbu’l-Logic”, which contain information about the introduction to the science of Logic, into Arabic (Ibnu’l-Kiftî, 1908, I: 149). Ibn al-Mukaffa ‘Sâsâni, who translated many important works from Persian to Arabic, played a great role in transferring the state tradition to the Arab-Islamic world. In this context, it contributed to the shaping of the state theories in Arabs. In addition, in the works he translated from Persian into Arabic, he removed the phrases that were not suitable for the Islamic belief and translated them by adapting them to Islamic culture.

al-Belâzurî: Al-Belâzurî (d.892), who has works in the fields of Ansab science, geography and history, also made translations from Persian to Arabic. The real name of al-Belâzurî, who is from Baghdad, is Abu Cafer Ahmed b. Yahya b. Jabir. It is also known as al-Baghdadî. A fruit similar to a coconut to treat dementia, which he suffered late in his life.

He ate the fruit of belâzûr, which is type e, but this fruit did not heal the disease and caused it to become worse, so he was named al-Belâzurî (al-Belâzurî, 2013: 3). al-Belâzurî translated the work named Kitâbu Ahdi Erdeşîr ‘from Persian into Arabic, but this work has not survived (İbnu’n-Nedîm, 1971: 126).

Hubeyş b. al-Hasan ed-Dımaşkî: The date of death is unknown ed-Dımaşkî Huneyn b. He is the student and nephew of Ishâk (d.873). He is a doctor and a translator at the same time. He translated Syriac and Greek copyrighted works into Arabic. ed-Dımaşkî translated important works in the fields of medicine, mathematics and astronomy into Arabic. He mostly translated the works written by Galen (d. 200) (Huneyn b. İshak, 1981: 149). ed-Dımaşkî; ‘Kitâbu ile Tûs erun ^ fî’n-Nabd’ containing information about pulse diseases and ‘Kitâbu Tearrufi Alleli’ l- Adâ’i ‘l-Bâtn’ about organ diseases in the abdomen and also giving information about autopsy ‘ The works named Kitâbu’t-Teşrîhi ‘l-Kebîr’ and the ‘Kitâbu’ science Bukrât bi ‘t-Teşrîh’, which contains information about the autopsy and written by Hippocrates, and the ‘Kitâbu’ science Aristotales fî’t -Teşrîh ‘translated into Arabic (al-Bağdâdî, 1951, I: 263).

Mettâ b. Yunus: Being a Nestorian Christian, Mettâ b. Yunus (d.940) translated many works written in Syriac into Arabic. In addition to his interpretation, he gave lectures to many people on Logic and Greek science. Most of his translations were made from the work named “Organon”, which was copyrighted by Aristo (Ülken, 1995: 164). Mettâ b. Yûnus translated Aristotle’s “Poetics” under the name of “Kitâbu” sh-Shi “r” and “Second Analytics”, which were also compiled by Aristotle, into Arabic (Ibn Hallikân, 1967, V: 153). However; A Syrian medical scholar Yuhannâ b. He translated the work, which was written by Serâbiyun and gives general information about medical science, into Arabic under the name of “al-Kunnâş-Şağîr” (Ibn Abi Usaybia, 1965: 317).

İbnu’l-Hammâr: Ibnu’l-Hammâr (D.1019), who was a talented physician, was also someone who had a say in the science of logic. He translated Syriac copyrighted works into Arabic. In this context; His work, which deals with atmospheric events from the perspective of ancient meteorology, was translated into Arabic from Syriac under the name of ‘Kitâbu’l-Asâri’ l- ‘Ulviyye’ and also under the name of ‘Kitâbu’l- Lebes’ (Eş-Şehrezûrî, 1988: 297).

Ibnu Zur: The physician and also a talented translator Ibnu Zur (d. 1016) translated some works written by Aristo on the science of logic from Syriac into Arabic. He translated the works named “Kitâbu Sologisticsâ’l-Fassh” written by Aristotle and “Kitâbu Nicolaus” containing information about Aristotle philosophy to Ibn Zur (Rescher, 1985: 328).

Although some of the translators of the Ancient Arab World were Christians, they made a great contribution to the Arab world of science by translating works written by Greek mathematicians, especially in the fields of mathematics, astronomy and medicine, into Arabic regardless of belief. However, some of the translators of the Ancient Arab World were of Persian origin. One of the most important of these translators is Persian origin Ibnu’l-Mukaffa translated the work “Kelile ve Dimne” written in Hindi into Arabic. This translation has survived until today and has been a source of inspiration for Western fairy tales. In this context, when translating the source works of different nations into Arabic, the translators of the Ancient Arab World did not only translate, but also took the source language and target language into consideration. However, these translators, who can speak more than one foreign language and are multicultural, have achieved the desired level of success while translating works written in source languages ​​into the target language. For example; While the book named ‘Kelile and Dimne’, which was copyrighted in Hindi, was transferred to Arabic by Ibnu’l-Mukaffa, thanks to the adaptation of the stories in the work that are not suitable for Arab culture, the work was written by the Indians, but it is accepted as a copyrighted work in Arabic. This situation is an important achievement of the translators of the Ancient Arab World.


Translation is an important activity that continues today as in the past. The most important elements that require knowledge and experience in translation are to master the differences between the source language and the target language such as culture, language and style. Because it is very important to use these elements properly in translation in order to achieve the targeted translation in translation. The translator must know the source language and target language, as well as the culture and history of the source language that they translate. However, the desired translation takes place in this way. In this context, the fact that the translator has a certain knowledge and experience will help him to overcome the problems that may arise during translation.

Truck. In this context, the translators of the Ancient Arab World, besides the mentioned features, corrected the wrong or incomplete information in the works translated from the source language and brought it to the Arab world of science. In addition, they translated the translated works by using sentences and words that the reader can understand, without changing the content of the information in the works. In this way, the Arabian scientific world was able to benefit from the information in the works written in the fields of astronomy, logic, mathematics and medicine belonging to different cultures. Today, one-to-one translation is made in most of the translations made from the source language to the target language. This situation prevents achieving the desired success in translation. However, today we make use of technological possibilities and cultural interaction more than in the past while translating. Despite these developments, today’s translations have not reached the desired level compared to the past. In this context, the translators using modern translation methods, taking into account the ways and methods followed by the translators who translated in the classical period, will contribute to the synthesis of modern information and technologies with the experience of the past.


In addition to knowledge, translation is a very comprehensive and skill-intensive activity that requires a command of the language of the translated work and its native language. It is very important for translators to translate a source work written in a different language into the target text without changing the content. Interpreters can reach this level with a very tough and long-term knowledge. However; It is essential for the translators to know the subtleties and cultures of both languages ​​when translating the source text into the target language. Only in this way can the desired efficiency be obtained in translation. In this context; Most of the prominent translators in the Arab world were not only interested in translation but also worked as doctors. These translators were able to think multi-faceted, had knowledge of different cultures and were equipped with a certain level of equipment. However, these translators, who knew more than one foreign language, also trained themselves in different fields. Some of these people were well versed in logic, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy. These translators, who have versatile knowledge, especially translated works containing important information in different fields belonging to ancient cultures from the foreign language they were written to Arabic. Thanks to these translations, the Arab World has achieved many achievements. The translation of the works written in the field of medicine and philosophy into Arabic contributed to the shaping of the scientific and intellectual world of the Arab society. In addition, these works transferred from different cultures to Arabic enabled the emergence of cultural interaction between societies and the uninterrupted transfer of information from generation to generation. In this context, translation and translation of the source works of ancient nations, especially in the fields of medicine, astronomy and mathematics, into Arabic has had a great effect on the Arab culture getting to know other cultures closely, entering new information into their own worlds and making this information suitable for them and bringing them to the world cultural heritage. Translation is the use of past experiences by transferring them to the present by establishing a connection between the past and the future. In a way, it is to benefit from the knowledge of the ancient nations of the past. This situation facilitates the emergence of interaction between past cultures and today’s culture. However, it has made a significant contribution to the shaping of the culture that a society in a transition period cannot fully establish.

In this context, the translators of the Arab world translated the works they translated did not translate literally into Arabic, correcting the wrong or incomplete information in the works. However, some translators translated the phrases and expressions that were not suitable for the Arab-Islamic culture in the literary works they translated, and translated them into Arabic appropriately. Because these translators knew the intricacies of the target language and the source language, they were able to translate complex and difficult to understand information comfortably. Some of these translations have survived until today and we still benefit from these translations. One of the most important reasons for the success of translations in the Arab world is that the translators are multilingual and some of them are Christians, Zoroastrians and Muslims. In this context, since they have the same religious belief and culture as the author of the translated work, they did not have difficulty in understanding the cultural and religious expressions in the works and were able to translate the works by finding appropriate expressions.

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