We read books that belong to languages and cultures and help us to recognize them, or we can introduce ourselves abroad with materials we prepare by translating them from our own language into different languages. Texts with these diverse purposes and contents cannot be expected to be translated in a uniform manner. The target audience of all will be different. Therefore, translation should not only remain at the linguistic level, but also include cultural and contextual factors (Cook, 2003: 55).
Today, it is possible to talk about countless literary works that have been transferred to our language through translation. In these translations, what is expected from the translator is to present an effect to the target readers similar to the effect the work has on his own literature. A translator should pay attention to many things within the possibilities of the target language, pay attention to the style of the author, the place of the words in the context and the cultural elements it contains (Kara, 2009: 8). In order to see whether the translator translates closer to the source culture or the target culture, it must be analyzed and described in comparison with the translation of an original work. Thus, comments can be made regarding the equivalence relationship with the translation of any work and the translator’s tendencies to make source / target oriented translation. The Lord of the Flies by William Golding, which has an important place in twentieth century English literature, was translated into our language by the translators Ozay Süsoy (1969), Müge Tayşi (1983) and Mina Urgan (1979). In this article, the source language text of the work mentioned will be discussed as the texts in the target language, and two different translations of the work, which have been brought to our language by Müge Tayşi as Our World, and Mina Urgan as the God of the Flies. Whether the translations meet the expectations of the target culture, whether the translators adopt a strategic goal-oriented or resource-oriented approach will be examined. For this purpose, translated texts will be analyzed in the framework of the descriptive theory focusing on the target culture, using the ‘translation norms’ proposed by the translation scientist Gideon Touiy for a methodical approach for descriptive translation studies (Touiy, 1995: 55).
In the study, “translation norms” of Touiy will be explained, then information about the Lord of the Flies work and its translations will be presented. In the analysis section created under subheadings, the effect of translation norms on the aforementioned translations and translators will be evaluated in the light of the data obtained from the translations.
• TOURY’S TRANSLATION NORMS
Contemporary translation approaches focusing on the target language and culture came to the fore in the second half of the twentieth century and moved to theoretical dimensions. Translationist James Holmes, in his work titled The Name and Nature of Translation Studies, published in 1972, explained translation science as an autonomous discipline with its own methods and theories (Venuti, 2000: 172). Holmes divided the fields of translation science into two as ‘pure’ and ‘applied’ fields, and put them in a theoretical framework within ‘descriptive translation studies’ that highlight the target language and culture and include product-oriented, function-oriented and process-oriented translation studies (Holmes, 1994: 59). After the acceptance and acceptance of this by everyone, the source and target texts, their socio-cultural dimensions and how and how they were handled by the translator began to be evaluated as a whole. Descriptive translation studies can be summarized as all of the methods required to examine translated texts and explain the results, rather than the subject of how the translation should be done. Subjects such as analyzing the source texts from one language to another by comparing them with the target texts, even analyzing only the target texts and the effect of the translator’s decisions on the translation process are included in the application areas of descriptive translation studies. Translation scientist Gideon Toury mentions that descriptive translation research can be carried out with a three-stage study. In the first stage, the position of the translation text in the target culture system is determined, the importance attached to the text or the degree of acceptance by the target culture is examined. Secondly, by comparing the source and target texts, word shifts are determined, the relationships between binary text units to be selected from both texts are described, and the generalization of the underlying translation concept is attempted. Finally, conclusions that can be utilized in future translation decisions are reached (Toury, 1995: 36-39; Munday, 2008: 111; cited in Gürçağlar, 2011: 135). Toury mentions the existence of the decisions taken by the translator in the translation process and the existence of some norms that govern these decisions in order to reveal which of the approaches that focus on the source culture or the target culture are adopted (Toury, 1995: 55). These norms, called “translation norms”, are the factors that determine the equivalence relationship between the target text and the source text (Yalç
in, 2015: 59). Toury argues that instead of unnecessarily questioning the already naturally existing equivalence in a source-text-target text comparison, it is necessary to examine the extent and form of this equivalence in a text on the basis of norms (Toury, 1995: 61). Translation norms, which direct the translator, who is a means of transmission between the source text and the target text, in socio-cultural environments, play a very important role in shaping the target texts (Munday, 2008: 112).
During the formation process of any translation text, translation norms are effective in making translator decisions such as which strategies will be used by the translator, whether the translator handles the whole text, and how it resolves the problems of coherence, coherence or consistency. In the face of a translation problem, it can be explained which methods such as adding, subtracting, and replacing the translator have eliminated this problem, and thus, the source culture-target culture trends indicated by the translator and the translation text created by him can be revealed. The following examples, taken from three different Turkish translations of Lord of the Flies, may serve as an example of how norms can affect the text by managing the translator during translation, and the decisions he makes:
‘؟ Hey walked along, frwo continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate.” (Golding, 1954: 55)
“They walked. Their thoughts and feelings were two separate worlds. They could not tell each other. “(Trans. Süsoy, 1969: 68)
“They were like two different continents who had separate experiences and had the difficulty and impossibility of communicating between them, they walked side by side.” (Trans. Tayşi, 1983: 73)
“They walked side by side. They were like two continents with separate lives, separate feelings; “(Trans. Urgan, 2014: 62) As can be seen, in these three translations containing various changes in lexical and structural dimensions, the translators aimed to convey the meaning underlying the source text sentence. However, during translations, norms affect each translator, causing translators to add or remove, and this has led to various tendencies.
Touiy mentions three different norms as ‘initial norms’, ‘pre-process norms’ and ‘process norms’ (Touıy, 1995: 57-59). Each takes part in different stages of a translation process.
• Pre-Process Norms
Pre-process norms guide the translator while making decisions on issues such as the type of the source text, the author, which language and culture it is from, or whether there is an intermediary language (Baker, 2001: 164). Touiy handles these norms determined by the translator before the translation action takes place in two different ways as “translation policy” and “directness of translation”. If the decision about the text to be translated is for a specific purpose (eg a specific language, a specific culture or a specific time), it can be mentioned that there is a translation policy (Munday, 2008: 112). The “directness of translation” determines whether the translation will be made from the original language to the target language or through an intermediate language.
• Process Norms
Process norms are the norms that govern all decisions and changes made during translation. Touiy divides the process norms into two; ‘Matrix norms’ (matricial norms) direct all the operations performed by the translator during translation such as adding, removing, relocating, and providing additional information. The ‘textual-linguistic norms’ norms, on the other hand, direct the translator to use various translation strategies in decisions regarding the selection of linguistic material, formal and structural changes and their presentation within the target text (Touiy, 1995: 58-59).
• Predecessor Norms and Source-Goal Orientation
Predecessor norms govern the decisions and choices made by the translator regarding the translator’s adherence to the source text or target language and culture. According to Toury, if the translator tends closer to the norms of the source text and culture, the translation, that is, the text in the target language, is considered to be ‘sufficient’. On the other hand, if the translator has made a translation considering the norms of the target culture, the translation will be ‘acceptable’ when examined from a resource-oriented perspective (Touiy, 1995: 57). Tourçz named these norms as antecedent norms, since predecessor norms often affect the translator before they even begin translation. However, the antecedent norms emerge after the descriptive study takes place and the relationship of the translator with other norms is determined (Gürçağlar, 2014: 137).
Toury argues that the shifts in meaning that occur due to the cultural norms of the target language are inevitable, so it is not possible to talk about the sufficiency or acceptability of any translation (Tourçz, 1995: 57). The only thing that can be clearly demonstrated is the translator
n are predominant tendencies before and during translation. A conclusion can be drawn as to whether the norms lead the translator to a resource-oriented trend or a goal-oriented trend. Thus, the examination of a translated text in terms of norms leads the researcher to the translator’s dominant resource-oriented or goal-oriented tendency.
• LORD OF THE FLIES and WORK SURROUNDINGS
Written in 1954 by the English novelist and poet William Golding, Lord of the Flies is a fictional novel. This work, which tells about the adventure of a group of English children falling on a deserted island in a time that the author fictionalizes, is actually an allegory in which concepts such as fear, ruthlessness, goodness, evil, dictatorship inherent in human nature are examined. Golding is an author who cares about and scrutinizes the social and cultural values and beliefs of the period in which he lived and reflects these in his works. This work, which is the first work of Golding in the novel genre, won him the Nobel Prize along with many awards and took its place among the world classics (Kelly, 2000: 5). In addition, Golding wrote the novel in response to the famous work Atoll by Robert Michael Ballantyne, a writer like him, and gave the names of the two main characters of his work, Ralph and Jack, two of the children in Atoll (Kelly, 2000: 9). ). The work was transferred to the big screen in English by Peter Brook in 1963 and Hariy Hook in 1990 (Kelly, 2000: 96).
The novel was first translated into Turkish by Ozay Süsoy in 1969 with the name “Here is Our World”, which is suitable for the story but far from its original name in a lexical dimension, and Mina Urgan used the name God of the Flies in her first translation in 1979 and in other editions. The work, in fact, the Lord of the Flies, in its literal translation, is named “Lord / God of the Flies”, specifically given by Golding as a representation of evil. Because when the original name of the work is examined, the word Lord, whose Turkish equivalent is lord or God, represents power, and the word flies – the pig head seen by one of the children in the story and the flies on it – represents death and decay. Also, The Lord of the Flies is a literal translation of the Greek word ‘Beelzebub’ and represents the devil and evil (Kelly, 2000: 54). Looking at these sub-meanings in the title of the book, it is possible to say that the translation of the title by the translator Müge Tayşi as Is Here Our World only refers to the content.
• Effect of Pre-Process Norms
Pre-process norms are effective in the translator’s choice regarding the type and language of the source text before the translation process begins. When examined from this point of view, it is not possible to explain what the decision of both translators to select this work to convey to our language is in reality. In order to talk about a translation policy that pushes them to this choice and affects them in these decisions, the translated books they have created, the preface / afterword sections of the books, the translators’ resumes or their previous translations can be used as a basis. Mina Urgan preferred to translate William Golding’s Lord of the Flies, although it has been translated before. It can be said that Mina Urgan may have chosen this work from English literature as the source text, such as the fact that she completed her doctorate education in English philology and worked as an academician in the same field for many years and transferred many works from English literature to our language (Hay, 2014: 221). Urgan added a final word to his translation in order to inform the target culture about the work and conveyed Golding and his work’s place in his literature system to the target language readers in detail (Urgan, 2014: 249). These details illustrate that his choice of text type, language, and author is not random, but the existence of a particular translation policy, that is, the influence of norms that guide him in choosing that text. There is no preface or afterword in Müge Tayşi’s translation. However, a note titled ‘Other translations of Müge Tayşi’ among our publications was added by the publisher to the inner cover page and the following three translations were named: The Sad Story of Erendira (Gabriel Garcia Marquez), The Scorpion God (William Golding) and The Sad Bird ( John Steinbeck). Again, these translations made from English literature and American literature in the genre of novels are also literary works that have an important place in their literary systems. It can be mentioned that there is a translation policy adopted by Tayşi regarding the selection of text type. However, since there is no information about Müge Tayşi’s resume, it is not clear whether it might be the publisher’s policies or his own decisions.
Also, when examined in terms of the directness of the translation, Mina Urgan is on the outer cover of her translation.
viren: Mina Urgan “expression, on the inner cover of Müge Tayşi’s translation, there is the expression” translated from the original English: Müge Tayşi “and this shows that no intermediate language is used in the translations.
• Process Norms Effect
In order to determine the target or source-oriented approach adopted in two different translations of Lord of the Flies, published as The God of the Flies (Trans. Urgan, 2014) and Here Is Our World (Trans. Tayşi, 1983), the samples taken from the work are in terms of Toury’s process norms. It requires an investigation. Process norms guide the translator’s decisions during the translation process. Determining these decisions will make it possible to speak of the acceptability or adequacy of the translation.
The examples to be used in the analysis were listed first from the source text, then from Urgan’s translation and finally from Tayşi’s translation. The spelling that appeared in the quotations was added to the study as it is, without correcting the spelling mistakes. In addition, explanations are made just below the examples given.
‘‘ This is an island. At least I think it’s an island. ”(P. 7).
“This is an island. So I think it is an island.” (P.2).
“This is an island, at least I think so.” (P.10). The first sentence of the above quotation has been translated into Turkish by both translators through a verbatim translation called word-for-word translation. In the second sentence, although the Turkish equivalent of the at least expression in the source text is at least, it is transmitted by Urgan by replacing it with the word, and it has slightly moved away from the meaning in the source text. However, in the same sentence, it is seen that Tayşi is bound by the source text by making a verbatim translation. “By the time Ralph finished blowing the conch the platform was crowded.” (P.32).
“Ralph was no longer blowing the conch, and the top of the big rock was filled with children.” (P.33)
“When Ralph finished blowing the conch in his hand, the flat of the big rock was filled with children.” (P.42)
In this sentence, which tells about the moment when the children in the novel will come together on the island and hold a meeting, the platform used in the source text is an expression used for the place where the children come together. When both translators look at this statement, they are expressions such as, until, just before, the meaning required by the by the time connector in the source text. In tether translation this conjunction
By removing it, it has now replaced it with its expression, and by not directly adhering to the source text, it ensured a better understanding of the statement by the target reader. Tayşi, on the other hand, made a translation close to the source text by transferring the same expression as when he was finished, but this caused a flow disorder in the sentence. In the platform was crowded part of the sentence, the word crowded, which corresponds to the word crowded, was removed by both translators in context (there is no crowd on the island other than children) and replaced with the phrase filled with children.
In this section, the description of Jack is given in depth in the source text. The word stream with sweat in the source text was conveyed by both translators with its lexical equivalent, blood in sweat. In the rest of the translation, Tayşi did not give up the literal translation technique and tried to translate it as faithfully as possible to the source text. While the expression a day’s hunting in the source text is quoted by Tayşi as a daily hunt, Urgan added the term hunting from morning to evening in this section. The meaning of vidsiudes expression in the source text can be explained as “constant changes or problems affecting a person’s life”. It can be interpreted as an attempt to reach a similar meaning by adding the expression of Urgan, which gives hope to the translation from time to time, even though it is not in the source text. Tayşi, on the other hand, briefly quoted the same word as the events that took place during the hunt, and did not add too much.
“Now, it was my unfortunate selflessness that I had to do something over there, not having a mother or father to sing around.” ^ S ^ s٥)
Both translators removed the child’s proper name, Maurice, in the target texts, even though it was in the source text. The reason for this may be that the child mentioned in the previous sentences continues to be mentioned in the flow of the text. However, the lack of a lexical equivalent of the expression to let fall a heavy hand in the source text in Turkish prompted both translators to add and subtract. The tether added the expression to get down on my back, and Tayşi added the expression to joke on his face. In addition, the word unease was conveyed by Urgan as uneasiness through literal translation, and by Tayşi as insubordination with the same method.
‘The sun in his eyes remindled him horu time rvas passing, so ^ tookthe c ^ rn ^ h dounrom the treeandeaminedthesurface. ” (P.7S)
“When the sun entered, he thought that time was coming. He took the great drnizminar, which was the lining of the tree, and studied its surface. (p.92)
(p.105) This section, written as a single sentence in the source text, has been conveyed in different ways by the translators. The left conjunction between the sequential sentences thus means in the source text, and Urgan aims to create the same effect by dividing the sentence into two different sentences. Tayşi, on the other hand, translated the conjunction as “when” and transferred the sentence without dividing it, keeping it as it is in the source text. In his translation Tayşi added the word Ralph to remind the reader of the name of the child in question. The sun in his eyes expression stated in the source text can be added to Turkish in the form of the sun in his eye. However, both translators quoted the statement in an additive manner, as if it got in their eyes or struck them.
‘The pile rvas so TOttrn and so tinder dry, hat u ^ hoie İi ^ bs yieided passionately to he yelld ^ ames hat poured uprvards and shook a gTeat beardofflame tmnty fee i ^ nt ^ heair.” (p.41)
“Wood was heavy, so scared, so dry at this time that the branches were enormous, the branches gushing upwards twenty feet high with my fringe, falling in love with the flames.” (p.45)
‘‘ The pile of wood was so rotten and now so dry that all of the huge branches were delivered to the imagination, which shook the stems upwards and threw up and vibrated in the air, reaching a height of thrust. ”(P. 54)
The detailed description seen in this section shows its effect in many parts of the source text. Both translators worked hard to reflect all of these details in the target text. In this example, the word whole, which means whole, whole in the expression whole limbs, was changed as huge branches by Urgan and Tayşı, and a word that was not in the source text was added. In addition, while the word now was transmitted by Taysi as now, which is its full-word equivalent, in Urgan translation, he used the expression at this time. Urgan tried to attract the attention of the target reader by adding the expression “bunch fringe” which is not in the source text and which is familiar in the target language and culture.
‘Piggy’sglassesfbofard tinkledontherocks.’ (P.71)
“Piggy’s goggles flew in the inn, it fell on the eyebrows with a scratching.” (p.82)
‘The piglet’s glasses flew in the air and fell over the rocks with a rattle.’ (P.96)
In the above example, although both translations are quoted verbatim, it is seen that Tayşi translates with the conjunction and and, while Urgan completes the sentence with a comma. In addition, in both translations, proper names such as person and place names were repeated and transferred to our language. However, the name of a single Piggy character is conveyed as “Piggy”, which is the word equivalent. Because the name given to this character, which is at the forefront in the original work, is associated with the image of the character (depicted as a fat and cute child) and was specifically given as a pseudonym by Golding (Golding, 2006: 11). Since this work is a work from children’s literature, both translators may have wanted to draw the attention of the target reader to the character by using the full Turkish equivalent of the word. However, although the verb tinkle in the source text only means to rattle, to rattle, both translators add the verb to fall next to it.
“He Yald Aile asleep after what seemed hours ottossing and turning noisily a ^^ ng thedry leaves.” js.9S)
“He had come to him for hours for a long time among the dry leaves, and after this time-turning around he fell asleep.” (p.117)
“Come to Kndis as if it had been for hours, toiru turned from side to side among the leaves and fell asleep after they had fumed.” (p.132)
In this example, Urgan quoted the expression as a comment between two hyphens, although it is not in the source text. This intervention did not affect the meaning of the source text, but eliminated the fluency of the text. However,
The narration of Urgan that he fell asleep after he turned and stopped caused the expression to be perceived as two different sentences, and Tayşi’s transference that he was spinning showed that he was closer to the source text.
‘A steady current of heated air rose all day from the mountain and was thrust to ten thousand feet; (p.145)
“The flow of hot air rising constantly from the mountain during the day shot up to a height of ten thousand feet.” (P.177)
“A steady stream of hot air rose from the mountain during the day and jumped up three thousand meters …” (p.196)
The word feet used here is an English unit of measurement and it is possible to convert it into meters in our language. Urgan transferred the word to the target text in the form of a foot without taking this into account. Tayşi conveyed the unit of measure to the reader in meters.
“His tone conveyed a warning, given out of the pride of ownership, …” (p.149) “There was a warning from the pride of owning the property in Jack’s voice.” (P.183)
“There was a warning in his tone that reflected the pride of having property ownership.” (P.202)
In this part of the book, the named Jack is the character who represents evil and shares the boar he hunts with his friends with pride and boast. The first thing that catches your eye in this example is
These are the translations made in the form of ownership of the property by Urgan and ownership of property by Tayşi at the stage of transferring the word ownership in the source text. Both translations are the lexical equivalent of the word. In addition, Urgan conveyed the word his tone only as a sound, while Tayşi conveyed it in the form of a tone that is closer in terms of lexical equivalence and in accordance with what is intended to be explained.
• Predecessor Norm Effect
The predecessor norm is the decision made by the translator as to whether to adopt the source culture or the target culture, before starting the translation. In the study, in order to see the effect of the premise norms adopted by both translators and guiding them, it was first examined how pre-process and process norms guide and affect the translations. As a result of the investigations, it can be said that Urgan adopted the goal-oriented approach before starting the translation and made his translation mostly in this direction, and Tayşi made his translation in this direction by adopting the resource-oriented approach.
In this study, a review was made on two different translations of Golding’s work named Lord of the Flies by Mina Urgan and Müge Tayşi, and the source / target orientation relationship of both translations was described. Firstly, the norms that affect the translator’s decisions before the translation process were examined, it was observed that both translators adopted a certain translation policy and both preferred to translate directly from the source language to the target language. Urgan’s efforts to inform the target reader by adding a last word to the end of his translation support his goal-oriented tendency, while Tayşi’s only translation process without making any evaluation about the source text supports his resource-oriented tendency.
Afterwards, the norms guiding the translator during the translation process were examined through the sections that exemplified the study, and the sections were evaluated in terms of structural, semantic and cultural appropriateness. It has been observed that the strategies of addition, subtraction, substitution and word-for-word translation were mostly used by both translators. Urgan preferred to make his translation more fluent and understandable by dividing and shortening long sentences in the source text or removing the existing part in the source text in order to ensure the integrity of the meaning. By moving away from word-for-word translation, he made a more comfortable and free translation, and he was able to visualize events and people much more clearly in the eyes of the target reader. Thus, all words and phrases specified in the source language found their place in the target language and were consistently delivered to the target reader throughout the story. All these results have revealed that Urgan has adopted an “acceptable” translation approach and has a target-oriented tendency. It can be said that Müge Tayşi preferred to transfer the sentences in the target text she created without deviating too much from their meanings and using new expressions in order not to break her loyalty to the source text during translation. Tayşi mostly used the word-for-word translation method and this approach adopted by him made his translation ‘adequate’ in terms of Toury’s premise norms. Translator mostly adhered to the source text and culture, showing a resource-oriented tendency. Apart from these, in the translation process, it has been observed that Urgan sometimes shows resource-oriented tendencies with his word-for-word translations, while Tayşi sometimes approaches translation with a goal-oriented perspective, which means Toury’s only ‘acceptability’ It supported the view that it was not correct to mention.
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