Translation is a tool for seeing the need for communication from the moment human beings come into contact with another culture. However, çe١n is not only the transfer of linguistic codes from one language to another; On the contrary, it is the phenomenon of the pragmatic perception of the meaning of the codes, which can be explained with the concept of context, such as a certain time, place, actor and subject, by another actor named translator. It is possible for all these elements to come together, to come together, to form a whole and to create a meaningful performance with the organizing power of culture. Although culture is a notion that regulates translation, it is also a phenomenon regulated by Çetri. In the context of this whole discussion, the present study examined the basic translational approaches on the subject, and tried to draw a holistic framework with a wide literature review (method) and transfer. It seems that translation is a transfer of cultural assets between two languages within the framework of a framework drawn by culture, rather than a transfer between two languages.
Keywords: Cultural translation, translation and culture, cultural transfer, translation culture.
Translation is the most important (f) actor of the communication and interaction process between languages and cultures, and it is a human-centered activity with every stage. The culture, which is the representative of the accumulation of human experience, and its name are frequently used together, and the field that these two phenomena cover separately and / or together remains one of the intense research fields of translation studies. The hybrid nature of culture and the transformative power of translation make this very possible (Gentzler, 20i7: xii). In addition, the performance produced as a result of the translation act can include not only a linguistic and pragmatic practice, but also different research areas in many semantic and social axes such as history, culture, economics, philology, anthropology, geography, politics, psychology and informatics (Chesterman, 20i2: 6-27). This evaluation is a necessary determination to remember how translation (Vardar, 1982: 18), which has a social function such as communication and information transfer tool, plays an active role on historical and cultural factors. Moreover, from the perspective of the culture-language context, it is stated that today, translation is not only mentioned within certain disciplines and with certain concepts, on the contrary, it is gradually transforming into an instrument and a principle applicable to every field and every field where science is done (Nergaard and Arduini, 2011: 14). When it comes to culture, an awareness is perceived based on all kinds of cultural elements and values, from text tradition to belief, from perception of the world to the way of expressing thought (Malinowiski, 1962: 169). The sensitivity that occurs with this awareness makes it a priority to interpret and evaluate behaviors and concepts belonging to other cultures with different aspects and dimensions, and to distinguish layers of cultural meaning in all kinds of communication media (Davis, 1977: 21-57). If this primary element is expressed through pedagogical approaches, it is highly enough to make the transformational and / or transformative power of translation understandable.
As Wittgenstein mentioned in many of his other works, in his book Philosophical Investigations, he argues that language is a way of life in itself and language provides social interaction (1958). This judgment of Wittgenstein bases the precondition that language exists in the formation of culture. Similarly, Sapir insists that every cultural pattern and social behavior involves a direct or indirect form of communication (1956: 104). If the instrument that will provide this communication is language, it is obvious that translation is the necessary tool to make visible the language embedded in the culture. Translation also undertakes the task of building bridges between cultures and clarifying the differences with the other. As for the translators, they carry out their activities, as Andre Lefevere puts it, as part of a certain cultural life within a certain period of time (1992: 14). This assessment is an important awareness that takes translation beyond being a linguistic transfer and gives translation an intercultural identity. In addition, Maria Tymoczko presents signs of the existence of environments in which ethical, ideological and sometimes political translation decisions will be made by portraying culture as the medium where differences between people are most evident (2010: 221).
A set of rules and norms based on religion, economy, law, politics, language and literature, which culture contains, constitute the elements of a culture and people who share all these are accepted from the same culture (Davis, 1977: 21-57). The interpretation and understanding of the customs and principles of two different cultures, according to Guy Cook, how and to what extent these rules and behavior patterns are shared in verbal-non-verbal communication environments.(2003: 52). In summary, according to Cook, cultural orientations shaped in the language-culture organic partnership may present some differences in different language groups, depending on the linguistic and cultural variables in various layers (a.e: 53). On the one hand, this reality reflects the need for translation and, in parallel, opens new academic debates on translation activity that plays a role in the development of communicative, linguistic and cultural competences. Although it derives its origin and form from language, culture is in itself a transfer of meaning, as George Steiner said in After Babel (1975), and should be read as a text. Thus, translation of culture contains complex connection points for and with each cultural element that makes up the culture. Although each of them belongs to different lanes, overlapping translation products are presented at these connection points as a manifestation of social interaction and communication. Therefore, the aim of the study was determined to provide information on what might be the areas of intersection and contact in cultural translation. In the first part, the concept of culture has been explained in relation to translation. The second part is devoted to providing an overview of the relationship between culture and translation. In the third chapter, the interfaces belonging to the cultural life that cultural translation is reflected in are summarized as contact areas, the possible translation difficulties that they can present and the appropriate translation approaches are briefly mentioned. For this purpose, socio-cultural concepts and fields such as pedagogy, communication, literary literature and politics were used.